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The Protocol to the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the other part, to take account of the accession of the Czech Republic, the Republic of Estonia, the [ Imputed retirement expenditure is not [ P ub lic expenditure [ Fiktive Rentenausgaben liegen nicht vor; [ In the case of nationals of the Member States whose diplomas, certificates and other evidence of formal qualifications in medicine and specialised medicine were awarded by, or whose training started in, the former Soviet Union before 11 March , each Member State shall recognise those diplomas, certificates and other evidence of formal qualifications in medicine and specialised [ The prohibition in Article 81 1 of the Treaty shall not apply to agreements, decisions and concerted practices which were in existence at the date of accession of Austria, Finland and Sweden or at the date of [ However, there is still a large group of countries, either confronted with high levels [ The assistance was to cover measures in support of the decommissioning ; measures for the environmental upgrading in line with the acquis, modernisation measures of conventional production capacity to replace the production capacity, and other measures which were consequential to the decision to close and decommission this plant, contributing to the necessary restructuring, environmental upgrading and modernisation of the energy production, [ Points out that, following enlargement, Kaliningrad will become an enclave within the European Union with a considerably lower standard of living than adjoining areas; welcomes in that regard the fact that Russia has given Kaliningrad special economic status, which may mean the possibility of greater [ In the EU plus Croatia and Turkey, the pattern is more mixed, with a substantial decline in excessive hours in most countries particularly the Czech [ At the same time, we are supplying the text of the [ April - "Prozessordnung".
In six EU Member States and in Norway, but only in one applicant country, Estonia, the intensity of the continuing training was greatest in large enterprises Luxembourg 45, the Netherlands 42, Norway 40, France 39, Portugal 39, Estonia 35, Sweden 32 and Austria 31 participation hours , while in fourteen countries it was greatest [ The transitional arrangements in the Accession Treaties of 16 April regarding the [ April in Bezug auf den [ The number of people in a group fell to 3—5 people.
Even with the suppression of partisan resistance, the Soviet government failed to stop the movement for the independence of Lithuania.
The underground dissident groups were active publishing the underground press and Catholic literature.
On 23 August a big rally took place at the Vingis Park in Vilnius. It was attended by approx. Lithuania became the first Soviet occupied state to announce restitution of independence.
On 20 April , the USSR imposed an economic blockade by stopping to deliver supplies of raw materials primarily oil to Lithuania. Although the blockade lasted for 74 days, Lithuania did not renounce the declaration of independence.
Gradually, the economic relations had been restored. However, the tension had peaked again in January But the situation was the opposite. People from all over Lithuania flooded to Vilnius to defend their legitimately elected Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania and independence.
The coup ended with a few casualties of peaceful civilians and caused huge material loss. Not a single person who defended Lithuanian Parliament or other state institutions used a weapon, but the Soviet Army did.
Soviet soldiers killed 14 people and injured hundreds. A large part of the Lithuanian population participated in the January Events. On 31 July , Soviet paramilitaries killed seven Lithuanian border guards on the Belarusian border in what became known as the Medininkai Massacre.
On 25 October , the citizens of Lithuania voted in the referendum to adopt the current constitution. On 14 February , during the direct general elections, Algirdas Brazauskas became the first president after the restoration of independence of Lithuania.
On 31 August , the last units of the Soviet Army left the territory of Lithuania. On 1 May , it became a full-fledged member of the European Union , and a member of the Schengen Agreement on 21 December It has around 99 kilometres The rest of the coast is sheltered by the Curonian sand peninsula.
Lithuania lies at the edge of the North European Plain. Its landscape was smoothed by the glaciers of the last ice age , and is a combination of moderate lowlands and highlands.
Some winters can be very cold. Snow occurs every year, it can snow from October to April. In some years sleet can fall in September or May. The growing season lasts days in the western part of the country and days in the eastern part.
Severe storms are rare in the eastern part of Lithuania but common in the coastal areas. The longest records of measured temperature in the Baltic area cover about years.
The data show warm periods during the latter half of the 18th century, and that the 19th century was a relatively cool period. An early 20th century warming culminated in the s, followed by a smaller cooling that lasted until the s.
A warming trend has persisted since then. Lithuania experienced a drought in , causing forest and peat bog fires. The law provided the foundations for regulating social relations in the field of environmental protection, established the basic rights and obligations of legal and natural persons in preserving the biodiversity inherent in Lithuania, ecological systems and the landscape.
Lithuania does not have high mountains and its landscape is dominated by blooming meadows, dense forests and fertile fields of cereals. However it stands out by the abundance of hillforts , which previously had castles where the ancient Lithuanians burned altars for pagan gods.
Many rivers are also flowing in Lithuania, most notably the longest Nemunas. Forest has long been one of the most important natural resources in Lithuania.
Lithuanian ecosystems include natural and semi-natural forests, bogs, wetlands, meadows , and anthropogenic agrarian and urban ecosystems.
Wetlands raised bogs, fens, transitional mires, etc. Changes in wetland plant communities resulted in the replacement of moss and grass communities by trees and shrubs, and fens not directly affected by land reclamation have become drier as a result of a drop in the water table.
In some cases, river and lake ecosystems continue to be impacted by anthropogenic eutrophication. Habitat deterioration is occurring in regions with very productive and expensive lands as crop areas are expanded.
The wildlife populations have rebounded as the hunting became more restricted and urbanization allowed replanting forests forests already tripled in size since their lows.
Currently, Lithuania has approximately , larger wild animals or 5 per each square kilometer. The most prolific large wild animal in every part of Lithuania is the roe deer , with , of them.
They are followed by boars 55, Wolves are, however, more ingrained into the mythology as there are just in Lithuania.
Since Lithuania declared the restoration of its independence on 11 March , it has maintained strong democratic traditions. It held its first independent general elections on 25 October , in which The Lithuanian head of state is the president, directly elected for a five-year term and serving a maximum of two terms.
The president oversees foreign affairs and national security, and is the commander-in-chief of the military.
The judges of the Constitutional Court Konstitucinis Teismas serve nine-year terms. They are appointed by the President, the Chairman of the Seimas, and the Chairman of the Supreme Court, each of whom appoint three judges.
The unicameral Lithuanian parliament, the Seimas , has members who are elected to four-year terms. Lithuania exhibits a fragmented multi-party system,  with a number of small parties in which coalition governments are common.
Ordinary elections to the Seimas take place on the second Sunday of October every four years. Persons serving or due to serve a sentence imposed by the court 65 days before the election are not eligible.
Also, judges, citizens performing military service, and servicemen of professional military service and officials of statutory institutions and establishments may not stand for election.
The President of Lithuania is the head of state of the country, elected to a five-year term in a majority vote. Elections take place on the last Sunday no more than two months before the end of current presidential term.
Same President may serve for not more than two terms. Each municipality in Lithuania is governed by a municipal council and a mayor , who is a member of the municipal council.
The number of members, elected on a four-year term, in each municipal council depends on the size of the municipality and varies from 15 in municipalities with fewer than 5, residents to 51 in municipalities with more than , residents.
Starting with , the mayor is elected directly by the majority of residents of the municipality. As of , the number of seats in the European Parliament allocated to Lithuania was The vote is open to all citizens of Lithuania, as well as citizens of other EU countries that permanently reside in Lithuania, who are at least 18 years old on the election day.
To be eligible for election, candidates must be at least 21 years old on the election day, citizen of Lithuania or citizen of another EU country permanently residing in Lithuania.
Candidates are not allowed to stand for election in more than one country. After regaining of independence in , the largely modified Soviet legal codes were in force for about a decade.
The current Constitution of Lithuania was adopted on 25 October The approach to the criminal law is inquisitorial , as opposed to adversarial ; it is generally characterised by an insistence on formality and rationalisation, as opposed to practicality and informality.
The European Union law is an integral part of the Lithuanian legal system since 1 May Lithuania, after breaking away from the Soviet Union had a difficult crime situation, however the Lithuanian law enforcement agencies eliminated many criminals over the years, making Lithuania a reasonably safe country.
In , there were 63, crimes registered in Lithuania. Of these, thefts comprised a large part with 19, cases While 2, crimes were very hard and hard crimes that may result in more than six years imprisonment , which is Totally, homicides or attempted homicide occurred Another problematic crime contraband cases also decreased by Meanwhile, crimes in electronic data and information technology security fields noticeably increased by Capital punishment in Lithuania was suspended in and fully eliminated in The current system of administrative division was established in and modified in to meet the requirements of the European Union.
Each has its own elected government. The election of municipality councils originally occurred every three years, but now takes place every four years.
The council appoints elders to govern the elderships. Mayors have been directly elected since ; prior to that, they were appointed by the council.
Elderships, numbering over , are the smallest administrative units and do not play a role in national politics. They provide necessary local public services—for example, registering births and deaths in rural areas.
They are most active in the social sector, identifying needy individuals or families and organizing and distributing welfare and other forms of relief.
Lithuania became a member of the United Nations on 18 September , and is a signatory to a number of its organizations and other international agreements.
Lithuania has established diplomatic relations with countries. During the second half of , Lithuania assumed the role of the presidency of the European Union.
Lithuania is also active in developing cooperation among northern European countries. It has been a member of the Baltic Council since its establishment in The Baltic Council, located in Tallinn , is a permanent organisation of international cooperation that operates through the Baltic Assembly and the Baltic Council of Ministers.
Lithuania also cooperates with Nordic and the two other Baltic countries through the NB8 format. The Nordic Council of Ministers and Lithuania engage in political cooperation to attain mutual goals and to determine new trends and possibilities for joint cooperation.
The Baltic Development Forum BDF is an independent nonprofit organization that unites large companies, cities, business associations and institutions in the Baltic Sea region.
In , Lithuania was elected to the United Nations Security Council for a two-year term,  becoming the first Baltic country elected to this post.
During its membership, Lithuania actively supported Ukraine and often condemned Russia for the military intervention in Ukraine , immediately earning vast Ukrainians esteem.
The Lithuanian Armed Forces consist of some 17, active personnel, which may be supported by reserve forces. There are also special operation forces units in Afghanistan, placed in Kandahar Province.
Since joining international operations in , Lithuania has lost two soldiers: Normundas Valteris fell in Bosnia , as his patrol vehicle drove over a mine.
The Lithuanian National Defence Policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters and airspace, and its constitutional order.
The defense ministry is responsible for combat forces, search and rescue , and intelligence operations. A special security department handles VIP protection and communications security.
For a long time Lithuania lagged behind NATO allies in terms of defense spending, but in recent years it has begun to rapidly increase the funding.
In Lithuania intends to allocate 2. Lithuania has open and mixed economy that is classified as high-income economy by the World Bank.
On 1 January , euro became the national currency replacing litas at the rate of EUR 1. Agricultural products and food made Lithuanian GDP experienced very high real growth rates for decade up to , peaking at As a result, the country was often termed as a Baltic Tiger.
However, in due to a global financial crisis marked experienced a drastic decline — GDP contracted by According to IMF, financial conditions are conducive to growth and financial soundness indicators remain strong.
The public debt ratio in fell to 40 percent of GDP, to compare with In , Lithuania was third country, after Ireland and Singapore by the average job value of investment projects.
Next up are Germany and the UK, each representing In the period between and , one out of five Lithuanians left the country, mostly because of insufficient income situation  or seeking the new experience and studies abroad.
Long term emigration and economy growth has resulted in noticeable shortages on the labor market  and growth in salaries being larger than growth in labor efficiency.
Lithuania has a flat tax rate rather than a progressive scheme. The country has the lowest implicit rate of tax on capital 9. Information technology production is growing in the country, reaching 1.
In Google setup a payment company in Lithuania. Biggest companies in Lithuania in , by revenue: Agriculture in Lithuania dates to the Neolithic period, about 3, to 1, BC.
The EU pursues a very high standard of food safety and purity. In , agricultural production was made for 2. Cereal crops occupied the largest part of it ,7 tons , other significant types were sugar beets ,9 tons , rapeseed ,5 tons and potatoes ,2 tons.
Products for ,2 million euros were exported from Lithuania to the foreign markets, of which products for ,2 million euros were Lithuanian origin.
Export of agricultural and food products accounted for Organic farming is constantly becoming more popular in Lithuania.
The status of organic growers and producers in the country is granted by the public body Ekoagros. In , there were such farms that occupied ,78 hectares.
Foundation of the University of Vilnius in was a major factor of establishing local scientist community in Lithuania and making connections with other universities and scientists of Europe.
Due to the World Wars, Lithuanian science and scientists suffered heavily from the occupants, however some of them reached a world-class achievements in their lifetime.
Jonas Kubilius successfully resisted attempts to Russify the University of Vilnius. Nowadays, the country is among moderate innovators group in the International Innovation Index.
Pyragas contributed to Control of chaos with his way of delayed feedback control — Pyragas method. Lithuania has launched three satellites to the cosmos: In the Valley development programme was started aiming to upgrade Lithuanian scientific research infrastructure and encourage business and science cooperation.
Statistics of showed that 1. The largest number of tourists came from Germany ,8 thousand , Belarus ,9 thousand , Russia ,6 thousand , Poland ,4 thousand , Latvia ,4 thousand , Ukraine 84,0 thousand , and the UK 58,2 thousand.
Bicycle tourism is growing, especially in Lithuanian Seaside Cycle Route. Domestic tourism has been on the rise as well.
Currently there are up to places of attraction in Lithuania. Lithuania has a well developed communications infrastructure. The country has 2,8 million citizens  and 5 million SIM cards.
In , Lithuania was top 30 in the world by average mobile broadband speeds and top 20 by average fixed broadband speeds. Long-term project — — Development of Rural Areas Broadband Network RAIN was started with the objective to provide residents, state and municipal authorities and businesses with fibre-optic broadband access in rural areas.
RAIN infrastructure allows 51 communications operators to provide network services to their clients. The project was funded by the European Union and the Lithuanian government.
Lithuania received its first railway connection in the middle of the 19th century, when the Warsaw — Saint Petersburg Railway was constructed.
It included a stretch from Daugavpils via Vilnius and Kaunas to Virbalis. The first and only still operating tunnel was completed in This railway network is incompatible with European standard gauge and requires train switching.
Transportation is the 3rd largest sector in Lithuanian economy. Lithuania has an extensive network of motorways. Kaunas International Airport is also a small commercial cargo airport which started regular commercial cargo traffic in Lithuania has one of the largest fresh water supplies, compared with other countries in Europe.
Lithuania and Denmark are the only countries in Europe, which are fully equipped with fresh groundwater. Lithuanians consumes about 0.
Consequently, Lithuania is one of very few European countries where groundwater is used for centralized water supply.
With a large underground fresh water reserves, Lithuania exports mineral-rich water to other countries. Approved mineral water quantity is about 2.
Vilnius is the only Baltic capital that uses centralized water supplying from deep water springs, which are protected from pollution and has no nitrates or nitrites that are harmful to the human body.
Water is cleaned without chemicals in Lithuania. After the decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant , Lithuania turned from electricity exporter to electricity importer.
Lithuania—Sweden submarine electricity interconnection NordBalt and Lithuania—Poland electricity interconnection LitPol Link were launched at the end of Gas Interconnection Poland—Lithuania GIPL , also known as Lithuania—Poland pipeline, is a proposed natural gas pipeline interconnection between Lithuania and Poland that is expected to be finished by Since the Neolithic period the native inhabitants of the Lithuanian territory have not been replaced by any other ethnic group, so there is a high probability that the inhabitants of present-day Lithuania have preserved the genetic composition of their forebears relatively undisturbed by the major demographic movements,    although without being actually isolated from them.
According to estimates, the age structure of the population was as follows: Lithuania has a sub-replacement fertility rate: In , the population of Lithuania stands at 2,,, Several sizeable minorities exist, such as Poles 6.
Poles in Lithuania are the largest minority, concentrated in southeast Lithuania the Vilnius region. Russians in Lithuania are the second largest minority, concentrated mostly in two cities.
Yiddish is spoken by members of the tiny remaining Jewish community in Lithuania. Schools where Russian or Polish are the primary languages of education exist in the areas populated by these minorities.
Minority schools are public, where the education is free taxpayer-funded. Lithuania has accepted quota refugees under the migrant plan agreed upon by EU member states in By the early 21st century, about two-thirds of the total population lived in urban areas.
As of [update] , Lithuania provides free state-funded healthcare to all citizens and registered long-term residents.
In —, the network of hospitals was restructured, as part of wider healthcare service reforms. It started in — with the expansion of ambulatory services and primary care.
As of [update] Lithuanian life expectancy at birth was The annual population growth rate increased by 0.
By the vast majority of Lithuanian health care institutions were non-profit-making enterprises and a private sector developed, providing mostly outpatient services which are paid for out-of-pocket.
The Ministry of Health also runs a few health care facilities and is involved in the running of the two major Lithuanian teaching hospitals.
It is responsible for the State Public Health Centre which manages the public health network including ten county public health centres with their local branches.
The ten counties run county hospitals and specialised health care facilities. There is now Compulsory Health Insurance for Lithuanian residents.
Emergency medical services are provided free of charge to all residents. Access to hospital treatment is normally by referral by a General Practitioner.
According to the census, The Catholic Church was prosecuted by the Russian Empire as part of the Russification policies and by the Soviet Union as part of the overall anti-religious campaigns.
During the Soviet era, some priests actively led the resistance against the Communist regime, as symbolised by the Hill of Crosses and exemplified by The Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania.
The community of Old Believers 0. This population fled or was expelled after the war , and today Protestantism is mainly represented by ethnic Lithuanians throughout the northern and western parts of the country, as well as in large urban areas.
Newly arriving evangelical churches have established missions in Lithuania since The historical communities of Lipka Tatars maintain Islam as their religion.
Lithuania was historically home to a significant Jewish community and was an important center of Jewish scholarship and culture from the 18th century until the eve of World War II.
Of the approximately , Jews who lived in Lithuania in June , almost all were killed during the Holocaust. Romuva , the neopagan revival of the ancient religious practices , has gained popularity over the years.
Romuva claims to continue living pagan traditions, which survived in folklore and customs. Laws govern long-term educational strategy along with general laws on standards for higher education, vocational training, law and science, adult education, and special education.
According to Eurostat Lithuania leads among other countries of EU by people with secondary education Modern Lithuanian education system has multiple structural problems.
Insufficient funding, quality issues, and decreasing student population are the most prevalent. Lithuanian teacher salaries are lowest in entire EU.
Many Lithuanian professors have a second job to supplement their income. As a result, the student-teacher ratio is decreasing and expenditure per student is increasing, but schools, particularly in rural areas, are forced into reorganizations and consolidations.
As of [update] , there were 15 public and 6 private universities as well as 16 public and 11 private colleges in Lithuania see: List of universities in Lithuania.
Kaunas University of Technology is the largest technical university in the Baltic States and the 2nd largest university in Lithuania.
In an attempt to reduce costs  and adapt to sharply decreasing number of high-school students,  Lithuanian parliament decided to reduce the number of universities in Lithuania.
There are about 2. Lithuanian is a Baltic language , closely related to Latvian , although they are not mutually intelligible. It is written in an adapted version of the Roman script.
Lithuanian is believed to be the linguistically most conservative living Indo-European tongue , retaining many features of Proto Indo-European.
Lehmann , Vladimir Toporov  and others. In the modern times, the Lithuanian language is divided into two dialects: The pronunciation of words varies in both dialects.
Jonas Jablonskis works and activities are especially important for the Lithuanian literature moving from the use of dialects to a standard Lithuanian language.
The linguistic material which he collected was published in the 20 volumes of Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian and is still being used in research and in editing of texts and books.
There is a great deal of Lithuanian literature written in Latin , the main scholarly language of the Middle Ages.
The edicts of the Lithuanian King Mindaugas is the prime example of the literature of this kind. The Letters of Gediminas are another crucial heritage of the Lithuanian Latin writings.
One of the first Lithuanian authors who wrote in Latin was Nicolaus Hussovianus around — after His poem Carmen de statura, feritate ac venatione bisontis A Song about the Appearance, Savagery and Hunting of the Bison , published in , describes the Lithuanian landscape, way of life and customs, touches on some actual political problems, and reflects the clash of paganism and Christianity.
An extraordinary figure in the cultural life of Lithuania in the 16th century was the lawyer and poet of Spanish origin Petrus Roysius Maurus Alcagnicensis around — The publicist, lawyer, and mayor of Vilnius, Augustinus Rotundus around wrote a no longer existent history of Lithuania in Latin around the year His Radivilias , intended to become the Lithuanian national epic, was published in Vilnius in Lithuanian literary works in the Lithuanian language started being first published in the 16th century.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, as in the whole Christian Europe, Lithuanian literature was primarily religious.
The evolution of the old 14th—18th century Lithuanian literature ends with Kristijonas Donelaitis , one of the most prominent authors of the Age of Enlightenment.
This movement is thought to be the very reason the Lithuanian language and literature survived until today. Several famous Lithuania-related architects are notable for their achievements in the field of architecture.